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April 1, 2013
THE HARD-EDGE SIGN
Art In America
April 2013
Stephen Westfall
<B>THE HARD-EDGE SIGN</b><BR>
Art In America<BR>
April 2013<BR>
Stephen Westfall<BR>
THE HARD-EDGE SIGN

Employing flat color and geometric form, hard-edge painters developed an abundance of styles and a rich, if restrictive, esthetic whose legacy is still felt today.


By Stephen Westfall

THE TERM “HARD-EDGE” was probably coined in the late 1950s by Jules Langsner, then a Los Angeles Times art critic, in reference to highly finished, flatly rendered, mostly geometric paintings by Karl Benjamin, Fred Hammersley, John McLaughlin, Lorser Feitelson and Helen Lundeberg (who was married to Feitelson). The four male painters subsequently exhibited together in Langsner’s exhibition “Four Abstract Classicists,” which opened at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1959. (Though impeccably refined, Lundeberg’s work wasn’t as thoroughly abstract as the others’, so it shouldn’t be assumed she was excluded from this show because of gender bias.) A revised version of the exhibition, curated by Lawrence Alloway under the title “West Coast Hard-Edge,” was shown in England and Ireland the following year. The term had migrated across the hemisphere and came to describe a certain look in abstraction that harkened back to Mondrian, encompassed a wide range of sensibilities and represented a cool rationality in the post-Abstract-Expressionist era.

Benjamin (1925-2012) was the youngest of the original hard-edge painters, most of whom lived in or around Los Angeles (though Hammersley moved to Albuquerque in1968). When Benjamin died last summer in Claremont, Calif., at the age of 87, it seemed like a good moment to take a fresh look at the legacy and future of hard-edge painting. For the purposes of this essay I want to consider Benjamin out of the original “Four Abstract Classicists” before moving beyond the American West to consider a range of painters whose work has employed the hard-edge sign.

Benjamin came to painting largely by accident. A native of Chicago, he moved to California after a stint in the Navy between 1943 and 1946. He graduated from the University of Redlands as an English major and had hoped to be a writer, presumably hard-boiled. In 1949,however, he found himself having to teach art as part of the general sixth-grade curriculum at the San Bernardino County school where he worked, and the task steered him in a new direction. He instructed his students to “fill up the space with pretty colors and don’t mess around.” Inspired by the work they produced and by modern art he encountered in magazines, books, museums and galleries in Pasadena and Los Angeles, he soon began making paintings himself. In 1952, he moved his family to the lively cultural community of Claremont. He taught at a grade school in Chino for more than two decades and eventually, in 1979, became a professor of painting at Claremont College. Living with his family in a ranch house designed by the local modernist architect Fred McDowell, and working in a studio out back, Benjamin made hundreds of paintings that came to stand for the Los Angeles hard-edge esthetic. (How easy and pleasurable it is to imagine a Schindler or Neutra home with a Benjamin painting and Eames furniture.) This esthetic was shaped in part by an embrace of the European geometric abstract painting style that would come to be denigrated as sentimental and inefficient by Minimalists such as Donald Judd and Frank Stella.

Langsner, the L.A. Times critic, defined hard-edge painting as the fusion of shape and flat, uninflected color, but he and the painters who touted the liberation of abstract shapes from conventions of representation were never caught up in the absolutist drive for self-definition that Clement Greenberg, Judd and Stella had set as the agenda of modernist painting. Benjamin represents an alternative modernist, abstract vision of plenitude. His first flatly painted abstractions feature Miro-influenced flame shapes. His patterns then shifted repeatedly and included right-angled geometry, diagonals, organic shapes and landscape references. He did not work toward some logical end and sometimes doubled back to revisit earlier motifs. His colors are rich, like those in sign painting, bearing even intensities but with the paint toned down a bit so that all hues seem to share a common light.

Oli Sihvonen (1921-1991) was, like Benjamin, a Western hard-edge painter who came from points east: Brooklyn, in Sihvonen’s case. He studied with Josef Albers at Black Mountain College from 1946 to 1948, and attended Taos Valley Art School in New Mexico from 1948 to 1950. He committed himself to abstract painting in 1950 and never looked back. His work, along with Benjamin’s, was included in the Museum of Modern Art’s1965 Op art exhibition, “The Responsive Eye.” He moved back to New York from Taos in 1967, prompted by a surge of interest in his work from East Coast institutions and New York galleries, but he quarreled with his dealers and showed only sporadically after the early ’70s.

Sihvonen worked through nearly as wide a variety of compositional motifs as Benjamin did, but he didn’t revisit them. The arc of his development runs from the simple to the complex. He made his national reputation with large, sometimes enormous paintings that hold fat ellipses against hot color fields. There followed simple vertical-band paintings in a somewhat darker and softer palette, and works that contain forms resembling ladders. Sihvonen was a maddeningly lax record keeper and left many, if not most, of these paintings undated, but it has been ascertained that the ellipse paintings are from the mid- to late ’60s, and the vertical-band and ladder works from the ’70s. Sihvonen developed severe heart problems by the early ’80s but continued to work, complicating his paintings further with broken fields of tightly packed stripes, ladders interpenetrated by spiral bands, and fragmented quatrefoils, among other shapes and pictorial inter weavings. Some of these compositions are nearly as optically dense as Al Held’s late, baroque abstractions, though without the illusionism.

ONE PAINTER WHO DID briefly practice a sort of hard-edge illusionism is Sven Lukin. Born in Riga, Latvia, in1934, Lukin immigrated to the U.S. in 1949. After studying architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, he moved to New York in 1958 and three years later had a solo show at Betty Parsons Gallery. In this exhibition, he showed a group of paintings featuring flat shapes, at once biomorphic and emblem-like, on canvases bolted to exposed wooden beams, which curve at the top as well as the bottom. In subsequent paintings, such beams were placed behind the canvas so that they tent it along its vertical or horizontal axis. With these paintings Lukin became known as “the father of the shaped canvas.” He subsequently took the approach much further into an abstract Pop territory, with curled panels that roll out from the wall like exaggerated tongues. The front and sides of these protrusions are painted as unmodulated bands, and the palette is hot pastels and grays. The ribbon like panel scan also be a little blockier and lean in sagging loops against a corner of the gallery like a drunk against a lamppost. By the late ’60s Lukin was flattening the forms back onto the picture plane as painted shapes, in ways that suggest coils of ribbon seen in isometric perspective.

Two solo shows in the last three years in New York, at Gary Snyder Project Space and Gary Synder Gallery, have helped renew interest in Lukin’s work from the 1960s and’70s, placing it in the context of his recent paintings. Some of these newer works utilize tree branches as stretchers for burlap. They recall Peter Young’s similar canvases from the1970s, but Lukin configures more irregular, organic shapes with his twisted branches. Each piece of burlap is filled with a painted color or a collection of colored shapes, though there are occasional glimpses of the raw burlap ground.

Another New York artist whose work is decided lyunder-recognized is Ward Jackson (1928-2004). Jackson grew up in Virginia and, after moving to New York in 1952, studied painting with Hans Hofmann and George L.K. Morris. After1960, influenced by Mondrian and Albers, he devoted his career to painting geometric planes in flat hues. This style began with a striking group of diamond-shaped paintings. In most of these works, black-and-white shapes are organized along the supports’ horizontal and vertical axes, leading the eye to interpret cruciformality. Although a modest man, Jackson was admired by key artists. His diamond paintings were first exhibited in an important group show at New York’s Kaymar Gallery in 1964. The other participating artists included Stella, Judd, Sol LeWitt, Jo Baer and Jackson’s close friend Dan Flavin. Jackson’s career, however, did not take off with theirs. He continued to paint, but also worked for over 40 years as an archivist and a program director of the Guggenheim Museum, and served as archivist and president of the American Abstract Artists Association.

In 1968, Jackson shifted from the diamond paintings to 3-foot-square paintings of trapezoids and triangles in soft but glowing colors. Collectively titled the “Virginia Rivers” series, the works feature long planar shapes that suggest abstract depictions of roads, rivers and riverbanks. After “Virginia Rivers,” Jackson used the same square format to create paintings bearing vertical bands, which can be read as silhouettes of urban buildings. He was known, in fact, to make small notebook sketches of the skyline across Central Park on breaks from his duties at the Guggenheim. Although his imagery touched on subjects from the physical world, Jackson remained committed to hard-edge abstraction for almost his entire career. In this, he was more like Benjamin and Sihvonen than Lukin, who was something of an outsider, using the hard-edge sign for his own ironic, architecturally imposing purposes.

Like Lukin, the English painter Robyn Denny (b. 1930) had a pivotal phase in the 1960s and ’70s when the hard-edge esthetic figured prominently in his work. But Denny is more of a Romantic than Lukin and holds irony in abeyance. In the late 1950s, while still studying at the Royal College of Art in London, he began to make paintings combining stark gesturalism and elements of collage that invoke Abstract Expressionism and the French Tachisme and Lettrisme movements. It was the Lettriste influence that appears to have been a bridge to his more geometrically ordered paintings of the 1960s and ’70s, which symmetrically position horizontal and vertical shapes resembling fragments of letters or numbers in the center of bright color fields. These configurations have an architectural feel, recalling archaic gateways. Denny was also keenly aware of Rothko, Newman and Kelly: the cool wing of postwar American painting, which he encountered in the late ’50s.You can see the incandescent mauves and grays of Rothko merging with hard-edge composition in a painting like Garden (1966-67). There is also a slightly cartoonish quality to the way that wide, colorful bands in Denny’s compositions serve not only as discrete forms but also as outlines of other, interior rectangles. In 1969, he organized an exhibition of American artist Charles Biederman’s abstract geometric reliefs, a project that furthered his own thinking about hard-edge abstraction. Denny’s best paintings from this period are his larger canvases—as big as 8 by 6 feet—whose architectural compositions seem to envelop the viewer.

The visually compelling quality of hard-edge painting reflects its relationship to architecture. The hard-edge sign is meant to telegraph across space even as it draws us in to inspect the painting’s facture. Its clean, fast lines echo the lines where floor, ceiling and walls meet one another. The sign may mimic the luminosity of stained-glass windows, as in Benjamin’s work, but it also pushes forward into the room, rather than offering an escape from it. Lukin, Sihvonen and Denny purposefully address architectural scale in their larger paintings. In1969, Lukin went so far as to install a phallic, 119-feetlongpanel painting in the Empire State Plaza in Albany, which remains his best-known work.

Hard-edge painting seems to be innately optimistic. But there’s a range in that optimism. Benjamin’s and Sihvonen’s paintings offer different kinds of ebullience, due to the artists’ distinct approaches to scale and material surface. Sihvonen tended to go for a softer, more abraded surface and a tangier palette, creating works that suggest close-ups of finely woven, patterned fabrics. Lukin’s playfulness can be much more louche than Benjamin’s and Sihvonen’s, while also containing a touch of Warner Brothers cartoon insouciance. Compared to these three, Jackson and Denny are the true “classicists,” to the extent that within the hard-edge style they work toward clear, harmonic geometries. Denny is perhaps the most subtle colorist of these artists. Jackson is possibly the most wizardly with scale. Though his works activate a significant amount of space in a room, few have dimensions greater than 3 feet.

I selected these artists to write about precisely because they don’t constitute an actual group. They exemplify a level of mastery that has largely been overlooked, as well as an impressive range of affect, despite working in a style that most people tend to regard as purposefully restrictive. Today, a similar range can be found in the work of younger painters including, among others, Frank Badurin Berlin, John M. Miller in Los Angeles, and Winston Roeth, Gabriele Evertz and Li Trincere in New York. Badur produces richly colored compositions of austere, rectangular forms and softer grids, while Miller creates optically vibrant grids of hundreds of floating, precisely sized and spaced diagonal dashes. Such rigor is also found with Roeth, who, in multi panel paintings, builds up layers of tempera pigment with intense, devotional care. Evertz dazzles with vertical-stripe patterns, and Trincere endows her angular-shaped canvases with Pop-Minimalist sass. All these painters demonstrate distinct, instantly recognizable sensibilities in works keyed to various aspects of the hardedge legacy, which is far too big for any single artist to represent. The joy of this esthetic lies partly in the abstract otherness it invokes and partly in its open appreciation for its models in European modernism. Some might see the historical interplay of such painting as a limitation, but I see it as providing an ongoing, deep conversation—one continually enriched by new forms.

formatting Download:   THE HARD-EDGE SIGN
Art In America
April 2013
Stephen Westfall

Associated Artists

*  Gabriele Evertz
*  Ward Jackson
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January 08, 2014
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Stephen Knapp's work featured in "New Light" exhibition at Polk Museum of Art
January 01, 2014
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Suzan Woodruff: "Echo Maker"
December 13, 2013
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Subtle and misty transitions: Leon Berkowitz’s ‘Unity’ paintings
December 07, 2013
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'The Circle of Time' expands abstraction
December 05, 2013
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Salvatore Emblema and ‘Transparency’
November 25, 2013
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Trygve Faste recognized as UO Sony Scholar for outstanding work
November 15, 2013
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Richard Anuszkiewicz featrured in the exhibition "Optic Nerve" at the Tacoma Art Museum.
October 18, 2013
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Does Art Matter?
October 16, 2013
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Toadhouse aka Allan Graham aka Skip
October 15, 2013
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Decipher with Difficulty: Toadhouse (aka. Allan Graham) at David Richard Gallery
October 08, 2013
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Ted Larsen
NMPBS
Colores
September 23, 2013
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Celebrated Detroit Artist Beverly Fishman Opens Her Exhibition at the Broad MSU
September 18, 2013
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ArtPrize 2013 Exhibition Center review: Meijer Gardens focuses on use of glass in contemporary art
Michigan Live
Joseph Becherer
September 18, 2013
September 15, 2013
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OPENING: Michigan sculpture park exhibits the diversity of contemporary glass art
Glass Quarterly
Paulina Switniewska
September 2013
September 14, 2013
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Strange sightings: Works by Allan & Gloria Graham
Pasatiempo
Michael Abatemarco
September 13, 2013
September 12, 2013
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Casting a spell - Artist, poet Allan Graham uses words, wordplay as a visual language
Albuquerque Journal
Kate McGraw
September 13, 2013
September 12, 2013
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Lightspeed: Trygve Faste at Ruth Bachofner Gallery
NY ARTS
Beth Russell
September 12, 2013
September 12, 2013
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Shattered: Contemporary Sculpture in Glass is ArtPrize at Meijer Gardens
September 12, 2013
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The Circle of Time
August 26, 2013
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New Betty Gold Sculpture to be Installed on Campus
Mary Baldwin College
August 26, 2013
Liesel Crosier
August 23, 2013
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IS TED LARSEN THE LOVE CHILD OF CONSTRUCTIVISM AND MAX ERNST?
THE Magazine
August 23, 2013
June 24, 2013
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TOP 10 ART AND ARCHITECTURE SIGHTS IN SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO
The Guardian
June, 24, 2013
June 18, 2013
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CAROL BROWN GOLDBERG, PHILLIS IDEAL, and TOM MATINELLI EXHIBITION
Huffington Post
June 17, 2013
Peter Frank
June 01, 2013
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June 2013: Salvatore Emblema @ The Italian Cultural Institute, Los Angeles
Whitehot Magazine
June 2013
Megan Abrahams

May 24, 2013
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MATTHEW KLUBER
Film Society Lincoln Center
May 2013
May 01, 2013
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PHILLIS IDEAL
THE Magazine
May 2013
Lauren Tresp
April 30, 2013
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JULIAN STANCZAK
COLOR WONDER
Cleveland Magazine
May 2013
April 14, 2013
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COLOR VISIONS: THE SANFORD WURMFELD EXPERIENCE
Hyperallergic
April 14, 2013
John Yau
April 10, 2013
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The Bay Lights, Leo Villareal’s monumental LED sculpture
MutualArt.com
April 10, 2013
April 08, 2013
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AKRON ART MUSEUM
Line Color Illusion: 40 Years of Julian Stanczak
Apr 13, 2013 - Nov 3, 2013
April 06, 2013
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CAROL BROWN GOLDBERG
Visual Art Source
April 6, 2013
Iris McLister
March 11, 2013
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JUNE WAYNE: THE TAPESTRIES — FORCES OF NATURE AND BEYOND
Pasatiempo
Michael Abatemarco
March 11, 2013
March 01, 2013
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WOMEN'S HISTORY MONTH ARTISTS: CELEBRATING WHM WITH JUDY CHICAGO AS THE KING OF HEARTS
Huffington Post
March 1, 2013
February 28, 2013
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DAVID RICHARD GALLERY HAPPENINGS
February 16, 2013
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JUDY CHICAGO
Woven and Stitched
February 15 – March 23, 2013

Gallery Lectures and Discussions on Tapestries and Textiles:
Saturday, February 23, 2:00—4:00pm
February 16, 2013
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DAVID RICHARD GALLERY NEWSLETTER
Newsletter Vol. 4, No. 2
February, 2013
February 15, 2013
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UNDER THE INFLUENCE: INTERVIEW WITH RICHARD ROTH
Huffington Post
Ridley Howard
February 15, 2013
January 25, 2013
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MICHAEL SCHULTHEIS painting on cover of Luxe Magazine
LUXE Magazine
January 2013
January 18, 2013
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Curiosity Is Key Interview with Toots Zynsky by Jessica Shaykett

Toots Zynsky is a creative force: Over the past 40 years, she has exhibited in museums and galleries the world over, helped establish the Pilchuck Glass School, lived on several continents, raised a family, and invented an entirely new method of forming glass.
January 16, 2013
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DAVID RICHARD GALLERY NEWSLETTER
Newsletter Vol. 4, No. 1
January, 2013
January 16, 2013
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ERIC ZAMMITT
Visual Art Source
January 2013
Iris McLister
January 01, 2013
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Susan Woodruff
Making the World
Huffington Post
2013
Shana Nys Damboryt
January 01, 2013
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Suzan Woodruff - Echo Maker
Huffington Post
2013
Anthony Miller
December 18, 2012
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NEW AMERICAN PAINTINGS #103
November 30, 2012
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FRED EVERSLEY at David Richard Gallery
ARTnews
December 2012
Ann Landi
October 16, 2012
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THE MARKET'S HOTTEST ARTISTS
Bloomberg.com
October 16, 2012
Ben Steverman
October 15, 2012
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BEVERLY FISHMAN NONFUNCTIONAL FRAGILITY
September 29, 2012
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THE DAVID RICHARD GALLERY EXHIBITS BILLY AL BENGSTON
Art Media Agency
September 29, 2012
September 26, 2012
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FOURTH FRIDAYS FOR FRIENDS
September 01, 2012
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DEBORAH REMINGTON / JUDY CHICAGO
Huffington Post
Peter Frank
September 1, 2012
August 31, 2012
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DIA GETS DOSE OF BIG PHARMA
Huffpost Detroit
John Corso
August 31, 2012
August 30, 2012
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PUSSYRIOT: WOMEN STILL A POTENT FORCE, SAYS FEMINIST ART FOUNDER JUDY CHICAGO
International Business Times
Gianluca Mezzofiore
August 30, 2012
August 20, 2012
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A SERIES OF JUDY CHICAGO EXHIBITIONS AND EVENTS IN THE UK FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE 1985
ArtDaily.org
August 20, 2012

August 08, 2012
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DEBORAH REMINGTON: SELECTED WORKS FROM 1964 to 1975
Pasatiempo
Michael Abatemarco
July 20, 2012
August 08, 2012
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Judy Chicago: Reviewing Powerplay

ArtInfo.com
August 8, 2012
August 01, 2012
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JUDY CHICAGO: REVIEWING POWERPLAY
THE Magazine
Susan Wilder
August 1, 2012
July 12, 2012
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Interrogating Heroic-Ness – and Judy Chicago’s Cultural Powers
Adobe Airstream
July 12, 2012
Ellen Berkovitch
June 30, 2012
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A TAOS MODERNIST EXHIBITION CELEBRATES BEATRICE MANDELMAN, FOUNDER OF THE TAOS VALLEY ART SCHOOL
Albuquerque Journal/Journal Santa Fe/Journal North
Kathleen Roberts
June 29,2012
May 31, 2012
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Pod Cast
May 18, 2012
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FIVE FROM FIVE "A SAMPLING OF PAINTING IN NEW YORK CITY
dArt Internatioanl
John Mendelsohn
Summer 2012
May 14, 2012
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ROBERT SWAIN "COLOR AFFECT" AT DAVID RICHARD GALLERY
Eyes In
May 14, 2012

May 10, 2012
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TOM HOLLAND: “PAINTINGS PAST AND PRESENT” AT DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY
Art LTD
Michael Abatemarco
May 2012

May 04, 2012
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“A PAINTING SURVEY”, MICHAEL WRIGHT AT THE DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY
Art Media Agency
May 4, 2012

May 01, 2012
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An Interview with Artist Julian Stanczak
GeoForm
May 2012
Julie Karabenick
May 01, 2012
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An Interview with Artist Julian Stanczak
GeoForm
May 2012
Julie Karabenick
April 23, 2012
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DANIELLE SHELLEY AT DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY
Art Media Agency
April 23, 2012

March 30, 2012
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DAVID RICHARD TO MOVE TO SANTA FE RAILYARD
Adobe Airstream
March 30, 2012

March 03, 2012
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THE CROCKER ART MUSEUM OPENS A SURVEY OF GROUNDBREAKING ARTIST JUDY CHICAGO
Art Knowledge News
March 3, 2012

February 29, 2012
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WARD JACKSON
Huffington Post
Peter Frank
February 29, 2012

February 26, 2012
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DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY - PALM SPRINGS FINE ART FAIR - 2012
Argot & Ochre
February 26, 2012

February 24, 2012
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30 ARTISTS TO WATCH IN 2012
NYArts Magazine
February 24, 2012

February 23, 2012
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THE INAUGURAL PALM SPRINGS FINE ART FAIR FEATURES MORE THAN 2,000 POST-WAR & CONTEMPORARY WORKS
Art Knowledge News
February 15, 2012

January 25, 2012
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DAVID SOLOMON AT DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY
Art In America
February 2012
Jan Ernst Adlmann

January 06, 2012
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SANTA FE GALLERY PLANS MANDELMAN EXHIBITION
The Taos News
December 29, 2011

January 05, 2012
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TOM HOLLAND AT SANCHEZ ART CENTER

January 03, 2012
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Beverly Fishman
DECEPTIVE PLEASURES
by Donald Kuspit on ArtNet

December 30, 2011
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HOLLAND'S WORK WILL BE PRESENTED BY DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY FROM SANTA FE, NM

December 24, 2011
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ART LTD REVIEW OF DAVID SOLOMON AT DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY
Art LTD
Jon Carver
December 24, 2011

December 17, 2011
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BAY AREA ABSTRACTION: 1945 - 1965
Visual Art Source
December 17, 2011

December 17, 2011
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THE BAY WINDOW - SAN FRANCISCO'S INFLUENCE CAN BE SEEN THROUGH ARTISTS' WORKS
Albuquerque Journal / Journal Santa Fe / Journal North
Harmony Hammond
December 16, 2011

December 13, 2011
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DON MORRIS: THE ART OF DECONSTRUCTION
Artweek.LA
December 21, 2011

December 13, 2011
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JULIAN STANCZAK: GREAT COLORIST OF THE 20TH CENTURY
Cleveland Institute of Art
December 13, 2011

December 12, 2011
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JUDY CHICAGO TO RECEIVE THE PALM SPRINGS FINE ART FAIR'S LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD
Visual Art Source
December 12, 2011

December 12, 2011
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DEMYSTIFYING PROCESS
Studio Spoken
December 12, 2011

November 30, 2011
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BAY AREA ABSTRACTION 1945 - 1965
THE Magazine
November 30, 2011

November 25, 2011
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DAVID SOLOMON AT DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY
New Mexican's Pasatiempo
Michael Abatemarco
November 25, 2011

November 11, 2011
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'BAY AREA ABSTRACTION: 1945-1965' AT DAVID RICHARD CONTEMPORARY'
Antiques and The Arts Weekly
November 11, 2011

November 06, 2011
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Cleveland Institute of Art touts its own history in shows on Robert Mangold, Julian Stanczak and Ed Mieczkowski
Cleveland.com
November 6, 2011
Steven Litt
October 30, 2011
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Q&A: JUDY CHICAGO
Los Angeles Times
Jori Finkel
October 30, 2011

October 26, 2011
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JUDY CHICAGO'S UPCOMING DISAPPEARING ENVIRONMENTS: HOW DO YOU MAKE ART OUT OF GIGANTIC PYRAMIDS OF DRY ICE? LA Weekly
October 26, 2011

October 06, 2011
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ART PLATFORM L.A.
ArtNet
October 6, 2011

September 26, 2011
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MICHAEL COOK: VENETIAN
THE Magazine
Diane Armitage
October 2011

September 23, 2011
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JUDY CHICAGO: WHAT I LEARNED FROM MALE CHAUVINISTS
LA Weekly
September 23, 2011

September 21, 2011
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CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF ART OPTICAL ART EXHIBIT A TEST FOR THE EYES
WEWS
September 21, 2011

September 18, 2011
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Charles Hinman exhibition at The Butler Institute of American Art
August 27, 2011
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MICHAEL COOK
Visual Art Source
August 27, 2011
August 16, 2011
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PILL SPILL OFFERS LATE-SUMMER THRILL AT TMA
Toledo Free Press
August 16, 2011

August 11, 2011
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WTVG-TV'S INTERVIEW WITH AMY GILMAN ABOUT PILL SPILL
WTVG-TV
August 11, 2011

August 09, 2011
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JOURNEY IN A LIFE BOAT
Santa Fe Reporter
August 09, 2011

July 15, 2011
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CALIFORNIA STATE OF MIND
Albuquerque Journal / Journal North
July 15, 2011

July 06, 2011
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ARTISTS OF THE MONTH: PHILIP BALDWIN AND MONICA GUGGISBERG
Art Alliance for Contemporary Glass
July 2011

June 30, 2011
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TOOTS ZYNSKY ON COVER OF GLASS ART MAGAZINE
Glass Art
July/August 2011

June 20, 2011
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JUDY CHICAGO

June 17, 2011
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WOMAN'S HOUR - JUDY CHICAGO
BBC Radio
June 17, 2011

March 11, 2011
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A.K.A. ZEN
Visual Art Source
March 3, 2011

March 10, 2011
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OVERGROWN ZEN GARDEN
Santa Fe Reporter
March 10, 2011

February 28, 2011
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JEAN WELLS "RE-POP"
Glass
Spring 2011

December 23, 2010
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PAINT BY THE NUMBERS
Santa Fe Reporter
December 23, 2010

November 05, 2010
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ART REVIEW: 1960S REVISITED (IN SANTA FE)
Adobe Airstream
November 5, 2010

November 01, 2010
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The New Criterion review of "Julian Stanczak: Color - Grid"
Gallery Chronicle
James Panero
Published November 2010
July 01, 2010
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THE ART OF GLASS: TRANSCENDING FROM CRAFT TO ART
Uploaded Magazine
July 01, 2010

June 28, 2010
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FAIR CITY - SANTA FE GEARS UP FOR SUMMER
Art & Antiques
July 2010

June 28, 2010
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TRADITION AND TRANSGRESSION - IN SANTA FE, CONTEMPORARY ART MOVES FORWARD IN CONVERSATION WITH THE PAST.
Art & Antiques
June 2010

June 14, 2010
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FORMER OPERA THEATRE OF ST. LOUIS DIRECTOR OPENS ART GALLERY IN SANTA FE
STL Today
June 14, 2010

June 13, 2010
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SANTA FE TURNS 400
Art In America
June/July 2010

June 12, 2010
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PAUL HENRY RAMIREZ - PRESS RELEASE

June 12, 2010
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BEVERLY FISHMAN "FUTURE NATURAL"

May 19, 2010
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SOFA WEST: SANTA FE 2010

February 01, 2010
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Terri Roland
Art In America
February 2010
Harmony Hammond
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David Richard Gallery, LLC | 1570 Pacheco Street, A1, Santa Fe, NM 87505 | p (505) 983-9555 | f (505) 983-1284


10:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Tuesday - Saturday, or by appointment


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